Tag Archives: English

So big!

Say it isn’t So!


Say it isn't so, Wilbur comic strip This expression means, “tell me it is NOT true!” or “I hope that is not so.”

The female comic book character here must be thinking, “Say it isn’t so!,” when she learns that she has been leaning up against wet paint.

In this title, “Say it isn’t So,” so means “thus,” or “this way.”

Let’s look at a more common use of so, and the purpose of today’s blog:  the use of so as an intensive.  When paired with an adjective so magnifies, increases, or intensifies the sense of what it is describing (much like the word such). However….

There is SO much confusion between such and so…

1. Such

Let’s take a look at how to use such.

If you are describing a person, place, or thing, you will use such.  Use such with nouns and noun phrases.

For example:

Malta is not such a big country.  I don’t think that is such a good idea. That was such a great dinner.

Look at those sentences again. Notice that such is followed by “a”  in those examples. Of course if the noun doesn’t take an article then such is used without it (see A, An, or The?…THAT is the question! for article use and non-use). For example: They have such great service at that hotel.

   Tip:  don’t use such with kind.

This site explains that such is an intensifier, but “kind” cannot be intensified so it doesn’t work * http://linguapress.com/grammar/points/such.htm *.  In other words, the phrase “such kind” is NOT grammatically correct. It isn’t kind (to your teacher) to use such with kind!

To say “this type” simply use such in front of the noun.  Yenta the matchmaker from my favorite musical Fiddler on the Roof, uses such in this manner:

“From such children come other children.”

Additionally, when such is substituted for this or these, “such” carries an enhanced negative meaning.  So, “this type of clothing”  is neutral, but “such type of clothing” makes it sound disdainful. If I really disliked a certain fashion, I might say, “I would NEVER wear such type of clothing.”

Okay. That seems simple enough: we use such with nouns as an intensive, or 2. to mean this type (like Yenta).

2. So

So, let’s look at the use of so using similar sentences to the ones we just used:

Malta is not so big. I don’t think that idea is so good. That dinner was sooooo delicious!

So is used to describe adjectives.  Think of so like an adjective booster.*

Young children in the US also learn that the answer to, “How big are you?”  Is “SO BIG” accompanied by a gesture of stretching their arms as far apart as possible!

So big!
Q:  How big are you?   Child:   So big!

In the comic strip above, the young man seems like such a nice man. Although the woman asks him if he has come to alibi (which means give an excuse for why he wasn’t where he was supposed to be.  I imagine he must have stood her up* recently).  He doesn’t seem so nice in the last picture however, where he sneers that the bench was just painted.  I think she was angry in the first frame*, but she must be sooooo angry in the last panel.*


So-and-so is a term for an unnamed person.  It can be used 1. to protect someone’s identity, 2. if you have forgotten their name or  it doesn’t matter who they are,  and 3. when what you are saying could apply to anyone. For example: 1. So-and-so made a complaint ., 2. We were talking to so-and-so when the dog got loose. , 3. Art buyers can identify the work of so-and-so through a variety of tells*, including: the colors used, the angle of the brush strokes, and the composition of his/her subject matter.


Much like so-and-so, such-and-such is a term for things, non-specified activity, or stuff. Here is an example of how to use it in a sentence, “If so-and-so were born in such-and-such year, you can calculate his/her age by subtracting their birth year from this year.”  Here is one more, “At camp we spent the day doing such-and-such, but at night we all sang songs and told stories around a campfire.”

My Take On It

There is a suggested lack of a person’s or thing’s importance in the terms “so-and-so” and “such-and-such.” It is as if it is too much trouble to remember or say their name.

There is a story in the Bible of Jesus talking to a crowd of people.  He tells them,

Why, even the hairs of your head are all numbered.” 

(Matthew 10:30, and Luke 12:7).  Can you imagine caring for someone so carefully that you would always know the exact number of hairs on their head?! Well, Jesus said that God loves us that much! He would never call us “So-and-so” in fact you have probably heard the most famous verse in Bible (John 3:16)

“For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life.

What an incredible way to think about such and so!  God loved us SO much that He gave up His one and only son for our sake.  That is SUCH an amazing thought.

~ Michele

Not Scary

Not scary
There is nothing scary about this.

Expressing emotions:

Are you at a loss, meaning you don’t know what to say or how to react, when it comes to using words like…

Confused or Confusing?, Excited or Exciting?, Scared, Frightened, Terrified, or Scary, Frightening, Terrifying?

The word pairs above should not be scary to English language learners. Take heart!* I will show you something that will make it easy for you to differentiate between the emotions you are feeling and what or who is causing those emotions.

Look carefully at the adjectives below.  HINT: Look at the word endings:

alarmed, annoyed, ashamed, bored, confused, delighted, disappointed, disgusted, disoriented, exasperated, excited,  frightened, frustrated, horrified, humiliated,  insulted, interested, intrigued,  offended, outraged, overwhelmed, relaxed, scared shocked, stunned,  terrifiedtired, and worried .

Do you see?  All those words expressing emotions that are being felt end in “ed.”   Try completing the sentences below with several of those words:

I am/was____, I feel/felt____, or I am/was feeling____*

*Note: Other proper nouns and pronouns can be substituted for “I” in the sentences above. For example:

It/he/she/The US government/Mrs. DeCouto was (feeling)____, They/The Russians were____.

Now, let’s look at the next group of adjectives. HINT: Look at the word endings:

alarming, annoying, boring, confusing, delightful, disappointing, disgusting, disorienting, exciting, frightening, frustrating, horrifying, humiliating, insulting, interesting, intriguing, offensive, outrageous (= maddening), overwhelming, relaxing, scary, shocking, shameful, stunning, terrifying, tiring/tiresome, and worrisome

There is some variety in the word endings above, but for the most part, these words end with “ing.”  Use the second set of words when the subject is causing the emotion.

It/he/she/Mr. Wilson is___, They/Hispanics are___, and…this one is tricky: I am ___ (when I am causing others to have an emotion)

‘ing demonstrates action

Think of it this way,  adding  ‘ing to a verb shows action. For example: As I am writing this blog, I am thinkingtyping, and occasionally  looking things up.* So when I am actively impacting the emotion of others I am _____+ing.

Look at the word pairs again:

Confused / Confusing, Excited / Exciting, Scared/ Scary, Frightened/ Frightening, Terrified/ Terrifying.

When I am exciting, then others are excited by me.  Perhaps they are reading this blog and are excited.  My readers might  exclaim, “I’m not scared of using scary or other adjectives of emotion anymore!  My Virtual English is brilliant!”  In this example I caused the excitement, so that makes me exciting and my readers were excited. Whoop! Whoop!*

Let’s look at some commonly confused words: scary/scared, frightening/frightened, and terrifying/terrified.  Remember the “ed” ending means the emotion that we feel.  I am scared when I have to do something scary like driving in an unfamiliar place in heavy traffic.  When something scary or frightening (things causing those emotions) surprises me then I might say, ” I was frightened.”  Being terrified is being so scared that normal thinking and responses are affected. Someone who is terrified thinks and behaves irrationally, fear is controlling them. (See the My Take on It section below for more about this.)

About love

I am loved. I am loving.  In this pair the emotion I am feeling and expressing can be represented by the “ing” word, loving.

Let’s look at some examples.

She is very loving.  This means that this female (it could be a person or an animal) expresses affection; she will cause you to feel loved. This use follows the pattern that we have been looking at.

I am loving this! This expression means that you are enjoying yourself, you love what you are experiencing.

To be loved means that another loves me.

When I say, “I am loved,” it means I am feeling the love being expressed by someone else (they are loving).

My Take On It  Michele MVE 02 Icon 80 Percent JPEG

Nothing Scary About This
Colorado Mountain Scenery

Several years ago,  I went on a Department Head retreat.  All of the company’s leadership participated.  We were taken to a remote (but beautiful) place in the mountains where we were asked to find a quiet place alone where we could consider the question, “What is most important?”

I pondered the question, What matters most to people?, and came to the conclusion that “to love and be loved” is what is most important.  The Bible tells us that we have been made in God’s image (Genesis 1:27).  The Bible is a story about relationships.  God gives and wants to receive love, true love, not a love out of obligation, but a love that comes from being loved.

We love because He first loved us.” 1 John 4:19
Holman Christian Standard Bible 

Knowing that God Himself loves me, no matter what, is exciting and reassuring.

Now, about being terrified…knowing that the most powerful force in the universe loves you and has got your back* should put fear to rest.*   Just prior to the verse quoted above,  John writes,

There is no fear in love; instead, perfect love drives out fear….1 John 4:18

So, this Halloween don’t be frightened… don’t be concerned.  Remember we have a loving God who is waiting for you to love Him in return.  And that’s not scary at all!

Be joyful!, Michele  

The Challenge of Using “Challenging”

Photographing a newborn can be a challenge (for the photographer AND the baby)
Challenge is a misused and misunderstood English word.

It is not uncommon for me to hear a student say enthusiastically,

“We must challenge!”

Huh?*  I think the intention of this rally cry* is, “We must fight!,” or “We must overcome!”

The problem with my students’ cheer is that the verb challenge requires an object, it’s a transitive verb.  We can challenge authority, old ideas, our imagination, and even ourselves and each other!  Things are challenged. We cannot simply “challenge.”

Let’s compare challenge as a noun and as a verb.

Challenge as a noun

There are several ways challenge can be used as a noun.

As in the caption beneath the picture above, when something is described as being a challenge, it means it will require a lot of effort and/or skill.  Obstacles can also be called challenges.

Examples: ♦ The TOEFL* test is a challenge (especially if you don’t prepare beforehand)., ♦ A traveler’s first challenge is to find safe and affordable transportation from the airport to the hotel.

When someone is described as being or presenting a challenge, it means that person is difficult to get along with, or manage.

Example: ♦ “Our new employee is going to be a challenge.”

A challenge can also be a  rally cry.

Challenge Sept. 12, 1962
President John F. Kennedy’s Challenge

In 1962, President John F. Kennedy encouraged Americans to land a man on the moon and bring him safely back. Inspiring a common goal is often called giving a challenge. (Click here for more about John F. Kennedy’s Challenge to the Nation).

The adjectives: Challenging, and Challenged

We often use the word challenging  instead of  the phrase being a challenge.  For example, the sentence, “The TOEFL test is challenging,” means the same as, “The TOEFL test is a challenge.” Likewise, instead of, “Our new employee is going to be a challenge.” I could say, “Our new staff member is going to be challenging.”  

Note: We can’t always make this substitution. In the sentence, “A traveler’s first challenge is to find safe and affordable transportation from the airport to the hotel,”  we can’t use challenging since we are focusing on a specific challenge.

Test yourself!  Look at the caption under the picture of the crying baby again.  Can you rewrite it using challenging instead of a challenge?  (The answer is in the My Take On It  section at the bottom of this post).

Additionally, challenged can be used to indicate a disability or something that is lacking. For example: Visually challenged means a visual impairment. Please note, when talking about people with disabilities it is rude to describe a person by their disability. I will be writing about how to talk about disabilities, as part of my “Tough Topics” series soon. In the meantime please check out the state of Washington’s, Guide to Disability Etiquette and Using Respectful Language in the Workplace.

Challenge as a verb

Using challenge as a noun or adjective is fairly simple.  The real challenge (meaning difficulty) is using challenge as a verb.

Think about John F. Kennedy’s challenge to the nation again.  A person who is giving a challenge is “challenging others to do something.” It means to encourage others to take action. We can also challenge systems and organizations.  One of my students said,

“I’d like to challenge the current system to become unprejudiced towards Japanese women.”

Her sentence uses challenge correctly. She is saying she wants to push the system to change.

Another student asked if he could challenge his appointment at the consulate.* Answer: No. He was trying to express that he wanted to try to meet with a consular officer earlier than his appointed time.  He could have said, “It might be challenging/a challenge to be seen early at the consulate, but I’m going to try.”

A third student said she would like to challenge business in the US.  Again, no. This idea doesn’t make sense in English.  She was trying to say that she wanted to accept the challenge of doing business in the US.

Not all nouns can be paired with the word challenge.  Let’s look at several examples and definitions of challenge as a verb from Webster’s online Learner’s Dictionary:

challenge 1

challenge verb definition 2

There are three primary uses of challenge as a verb:  1. to question the authority or validity of a person or thing (definitions one and two), 2. to confront someone, or dare someone to compete (definitions two, four, and five), and 3. To challenge someone’s imagination, or be challenged by something or someone is to be pushed, i.e.,  to be encouraged to accomplish something which is difficult (definition three).

Before using challenge as a verb... Click To Tweet, Do you want to express the idea of questioning someone/something, confrontation, or being pushed by someone/something?  And, do you have a subject which is challenging or being challenged by an object?

Things which can be challenged:
Grandkids challenging
My grandkids challenging my patience

Use #1: truth, decisions, statements, rules, reports, results, research, outdated ideas or methods

Use #2: authority, decisions, assumptions

Use #3: minds, imagination, ability, things requiring any skill (athletic, intellectual, dexterity. language, concentration/focus, any skill)

Use #4: “challenge (someone) to a___”: fight, or competition (anything where someone has to prove themselves)

Use #5: people we suspect of not being authorized (intruders, uninvited guests, those who appear too young to purchase or consume alcohol or tobacco, etc).

My Take On It  Michele MVE 02 Icon 80 Percent JPEG

Quiz: How can you replace the noun “a challenge” with the adjective “challenging” in the caption above? Answer: Photographing a newborn can be challenging. (If you used another variation of “photographing” such as “taking pictures,” or “snapping photos,” your answer is also correct).

Famous quotes about Challenges:

Accept the challenges, so you may feel the exhilaration of victory.
George S. Patton

Dreams can often become challenging, but challenges are what we live for.
Travis White

I wanted to be scared again… I wanted to feel unsure again. That’s the only way I learn, the only way I feel challenged.
Connie Chung

It’s always the challenge of the future, this feeling of excitement, that drives me.
Yoshihisa Tabuchi

To be tested is good. The challenged life may be the best therapist.
Gail Sheehy

Famous Challenges (calls to action):

If you can’t stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.
Harry S. Truman

Life is a song – sing it. Life is a game – play it. Life is a challenge – meet it. Life is a dream – realize it. Life is a sacrifice – offer it. Life is love – enjoy it.     Sai Baba

For God did not give us a spirit of timidity, but a spirit of power, of love and of self-discipline.  2 Timothy 1:7 NIV

 Blessings,    Michele  


Frickin’ Fricatives

Not too long ago, I made a shocking discovery….

When I first started teaching English as a foreign language, I was constantly  reminding students about “subject-verb agreement.”  This means plural subjects like “they” or “my students” are paired with plain, plural verbs. For example, “They like pizza,” or “My students are dedicated.” On the other hand, singular subjects like “he” including mass nouns like “my family” require singular verbs, which often have an s ending. For example, “He likes pizza,” or “My family is supportive.”  But this article is not about subject-verb agreement!  Keep reading…

I had mistakenly believed that the s ending on singular verbs was confusing. What surprised me however, was that my students were leaving off s endings when they were reading aloud.  At first, I thought that this pattern of leaving off the s was so ingrained that the students were just in the habit of not pronouncing it.  That’s when I made a shocking discovery…

“My students were pronouncing the s, just not forcibly enough for my English ears to hear!

Now, I teach my students to use enough power to make their S audible. Click To Tweet

FHW Santa 2012 006


Frickin’ Fricatives

The s sound belongs to a class of sounds called fricatives.  Fricatives require air to pass forcefully through a narrow opening.  A lot of these sounds present challenges to English language learners. Let’s take a look at these frickin* fricatives:  

f, v, th, s, z, sh, and zj

Phonetic representations, and examples of words with these sounds at the beginning, middle and end:

f (unvoiced) /f/ as in fin, elephant, and laugh
v (voiced) /v/ as in vase, seven, and love
th (unvoiced) θ as in thin, marathon,  and with
th (voiced) ð as in the, father, and breathe
s (unvoiced) /s/ as in see, listen, and voice
z (voiced) /z/ as in zoo, busy, and nose
sh (unvoiced) ʃ as in she, ocean, and push
zj (voiced) ʒ as in Jacques, usual, and beige

Some linguists include /h/ as a fricative. The h  sound is produced with an open mouth naturally allowing more air to pass and making it easier to produce the correct sound. So, for this reason I have excluded it. H is friendlier than the frustrating frickin’ fricatives listed above.

Finding your voice

The first step to speaking good English is to adopt good English-speaking habits. Many English language learners are still using first language rules, especially politeness rules.

Think about it.  Is your English being sabotaged by any of the following ideas?

∗It’s impolite to show your tongue. In English the short a /ae/ vowel as in fast, man, and cat is open so wide that the tongue can be seen.  Additionally, both the /th/ sounds require the tongue to go all the way in between the front teeth.

Watch Rachel’s English demonstration of the /th/ sounds below:

∗Don’t show your teeth. This idea is similar to the one above.  A proper f , v, and long e sound should show your teeth.

∗Don’t allow others to feel or smell your breath when you speak. Keep your mouth clean and breath fresh so you can confidently enunciate fricatives and push air strongly through small openings using the teeth, lips, and tongue.

∗Don’t speak too loudly. A good rule of thumb* is to match the level of those you are speaking with.  Professional speakers and singers have learned to speak from the diaphragm, the muscle in the center of  your chest. Learning to use this muscle gives you more power and reduces stress on your voice.

Watch Rachel explain where sounds are placed in American English:

∗DO ignore these unhelpful rules which are interfering with your English pronunciation.

Develop your English persona

Sometimes when a student has a so-called* “accent problem,” it is due to a strong sense of self rooted in their first language. A successful professional may feel undignified, foolish, or even rude making some of the mouth and tongue positions required for clear English sounds.

If your accent is causing you concern, allow yourself to create an English image.  Your English persona is allowed to break the speaking “rules” that your native-language self uses. Students have even told me that their personality changes a little when they are speaking English.  Those students have an English persona!

Don’t get me wrong!* I’m not advocating a personality change.  I’m saying speaking  and politeness rules differ across languages.  I’m encouraging you to break free of constraints. Be true to who you are.  Just be an English-speaking you!

Note: English is active!  Think of English as a sport for your face!  Grab some gum and watch my Double Bubble Train Your Face video to practice making the tongue positions opening your mouth wide enough for clear English.

Lessons for Learning/Teaching

Now let’s practice those frickin’ fricatives.

Here is a fun role play I found at ESL gold.com.  Work in pairs (students play one role while another student or tutor plays the other).

A: Call to order a pizza.

B: Wrong number. You sell pitas, not pizzas.

Final F Bingo, 4 players  (print out the Bingo cards and cut out the three colored tiles at the bottom of the page). One player is selected as the “caller.” Each of the other three players have a picture card.  The caller draws one tile at a time and calls out the word. The other players mark the corresponding picture.  The first player to get three in a row (in any direction, horizontal, vertical, or diagonal) calls out “Bingo!” and must read back the words on the winning row. Players take turns being the caller.

Medial F Bingo this game is played like Final F Bingo, but with words with the /f/ sound in the middle

Shop and Chop: Practice with fricatives and affricates, by Jennifer Lebedev of English with Jennifer. Several activities using  sh/ʃ/ and zj/ʒ/.  Print the instructions and student worksheets here.

And last but not least* Tongue Twisters are excellent (and fun) for pronunciation training and practice.

Michele MVE 02 Icon 80 Percent JPEG  That’s it!  Michele

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Let me qualify that photo by Jette Carr

Let Me Qualify That! (Qualifying Statements)

Several months ago, I was working with a student and after I made a statement, I said, “Let me qualify that…” at which point I added more information to make the statement true.

Two ways to qualify a statement: Add information, Narrow its focus

Let’s say* that I had said, “Boys tend to be less verbal than girls.”  After saying this, I realize that I have overstated the truth.  I can qualify my statement, making it more accurate, by adding additional information.  For example,

“Boys tend to be less verbal than girls.  Let me qualify that, boys are often perceived to be less verbal than girls.”

NOTE: Just as in this example, the first statement is typically repeated and then qualified.

In this context qualify means to modify a statement by restating it  and including the specific conditions which make it true.

Additionally, we can qualify a statement by narrowing its focus.  As in: “I’d like to qualify my statement.  I’m not just pleased. I’m pleased with your ability to persevere and see this thing through.”

The Oxford Learner’s Dictionary,  gives the following example “I want to qualify what I said earlier—I didn’t mean he couldn’t do the job, only that he would need supervision.”  It is being used here as a transitive verb meaning,  “to add something to a previous statement to make the meaning less strong or less general.”  Or, as I said above, narrowing its focus.

Q. Shouldn’t we use strong statements to communicate more confidence and authority?

A. No.  The opposite is true.  If you overstate the truth, you lose credibility and it weakens your argument.

Qualifying a statement with other phrases

There are other ways to qualify a sentence without having to use the phrase “let me qualify that.”  For example:

Almost   Almost all giraffes can walk within an hour of being born.  (The strong statement “All giraffes can walk within an hour of being born,” was qualified).

Let me qualify that Giraffe photo by  Anna Langova
Giraffe photo by Anna Langova

But   Giraffes eat tree leaves.  But their diet also includes twigs and fruit.  (The strong statement “Giraffes eat tree leaves,” was qualified).

Except   All the animals in the zoo slept through the noise, except the koala. (We qualified the strong statement “All the animals in the zoo slept through the noise.” )

For all intents and purposes*  The sequel, for all intents and purposes was just a rewrite of the first movie.  (The strong statement “The sequel was just a rewrite of the first movie,” was qualified).

 In a way*  In a way, he reminds me of my brother. (We qualified the  strong statement, “He reminds me of my brother.”)

♦ More or less  The  conference went more or less as planned. (The strong statement, “The conference went as planned,” was qualified).

Practically  The performer was practically naked.  (We qualified, “The performer was naked,” which would be taken as a fact.)

To some extent  To some extent my internship caused me to rethink my career plans. (We qualified the strong statement “My internship caused me to rethink my career plans.”)

♦ Up to a point  I enjoy strenuous exercise up to a point. (The strong statement, “I enjoy strenuous exercise,” has been qualified).

Even so, the most common use for qualify is to be entitled, Click To Tweet In other words, qualify is usually used to mean selected or recognized as competent or fit for a special purpose or skill.

Do you qualify?!

Can you use and identify both uses of qualify?  Take the quiz below and find out if you qualify as a master English speaker.  Let me qualify that, find out if you qualify as master user of the word qualify.

Here are some examples using qualify (from some of my followers).  Can you identify which use is 1. qualifying a statement, and which use means 2. to be recognized as able? (Answers below the My Take On It section at the bottom of this article).

  • Lori:  You must earn less than $30,000 per year to qualify for assistance.
  • Michele MVE 02 Icon 80 Percent JPEG Michele Snider: You qualified! Let me qualify that, “You qualify as a qualifier* in the next round!”
  • Sharon:  Your bad behavior qualifies you to be put on Santa’s naughty list! Your good behavior qualifies you to be put on his good list, and on mom’s good list! Lol!*

My Take On It  Michele MVE 02 Icon 80 Percent JPEG

Two things come to mind as I consider my Christian perspective on this subject.  First the Bible tells us,  in Matthew 5: 37

“But let your word ‘yes be ‘yes,’ and your ‘no be ‘no.’ Anything more than this is from the evil one.”

I believe this is telling us to tell it like it is,* meaning say what you mean, tell the truth, and speak accurately.

The second thing, but actually the first thing that came to mind as I was writing this article, is the fact that even though we don’t feel qualified (meaning worthy, or competent) to have a relationship with God Almighty, or to represent Him or even serve Him.  He has promised to equip us and work in and through us.  So, it is God in us that qualifies us for whatever lies ahead.  (Now that is a STRONG statement that DOESN’T need to be qualified!)  The Bible supports this idea in several places:

Hebrews 13:20,21

20 Now may the God of peace, who through the blood of the eternal covenant brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep,

21 equip you with everything good for doing his will, and may he work in us what is pleasing to him, through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

Let me qualify that Colorado sunrise by, MW Snider
Colorado Sunrise by, Michele W. Snider

1 Corinthians 12:27

Now you are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it.

and Timothy 3:16,17

16 All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness;17 so that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work.

Each of us is uniquely qualified for a special purpose. When we partner with God, there is no task too great, no detail too small for us to manage.

Answers to the quiz:  All the quiz examples used the word qualify in the most common sense (use #2: to be entitled, competent, or chosen by virtue of skill or lottery), except for the second sentence!  Obviously, “Let me qualify that….” qualifies as use #1.  If you still have questions about the different uses of qualify, click on the hyperlink to the Oxford Learner’s Dictionary above.  

Blessings,   Michele